Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Literatures comprise those programs which are based on the foreign languages currently taught at Bard: Chinese, French, German, Ancient Greek, Italian, Latin, Russian, Sanskrit, and Spanish. The programs' common philosophy involves the critical appreciation of one or more foreign cultures and literatures through the learning and mastery of the language of each. While each program has its own intellectual and academic plan, the requirements for moderation are similar: (1) Linguistic proficiency, based usually on three or more semesters of language study; (2) Literary proficiency through completion of at least one course in the foreign literature, preferably a survey course; (3) Cultural proficiency, demonstrated by at least one course in a related area outside of literature, e.g., philosophy, history, or music.


CHI 101 Beginning Chinese I

Professor: L. Ying

CRN: 91620 Distribution: B/D

Time:M T W Th 1:20 pm ­ 2:20 pm LC 118

For students with little or no previous knowledge of Chinese. An introduction to modern (Mandarin) Chinese through an intensive drill of its oral and written forms. Emphasis on speaking and basic grammar as well as the formation of the characters. Audio and video materials and literary texts will be incorporated into the curriculum to introduce Chinese culture. Daily active participation is vital. Divisible.

CHI 210 Women Writers of Chinese Ancestry

Professor: L. Ying

CRN: 91621 Distribution: n/a

Time: Tue 2:50 pm ­ 4:50 pm LC 118

Cross-listed: Gender Studies, MES

This course will focus on fiction by a group of women writers who, though born of the same roots, represent a diversity of backgrounds and artistic expressions. Among them, Maxine Hong Kingston and Amy Tan write from the perspective of Chinese American women who are caught between two worlds; Li Ang, a Taiwanese writer, portrays personal struggles of women in a rural community; and Wang Anyi and Can Xue of China reflect upon the political changes that affect individual lives. These writers are linked by one common thread--their writings invariably contemplate on the meaning of tradition, be it folk tales told by an aunt, or Confucianist moral teachings reinforced by the rules of a clan, or fragmented knowledge about China's past gathered from political campaigns. Furthermore, they all locate the central struggle within the framework of women's experience in relation to the sociopolitical conditions which shaped and governed their lives.

CHI 301 Advanced Chinese

Professor: L. Ying

CRN: 91622 Distribution: B/D

Time:M W 2:50 pm ­ 4:20 pm LC 118

This course is for students who have taken at least two years of basic Chinese at Bard or elsewhere, and who want to expand their reading and speaking capacity and to enrich their cultural experiences. Texts will be selected from newspapers, journals, and fictional works.


see also: HIST 130 - Archaic and Classical Greece

HIST 220 - The Ancient Greek City


GRE 101 Foundational Greek I

Professor: C. Callanan

CRN: 91757 Distribution: D

Time: M W 1:20 pm - 2:20 pm OLIN 303

T Th 1:20 pm - 2:20 pm OLIN 302

Ancient Greek is the language of the epics of Homer, the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, the comedies of Aristophanes, the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides, etc. In this course, students will learn the grammar of Greek and acquire a fundamental vocabulary. Attention will also be given to pronunciation and recitation of poetry and prose. Discussions of Greek culture and thought will occasionally result. In the second semester, significant passages from ancient authors will be read.

GRE 201 Intermediate Greek

Professor: E. Orlin

CRN: 91758 Distribution: D

Time: Tu Th 10:30 am - 11:50 am OLIN 302

In this course we will read selections from the Greek historian Herodotus. We will continue to develop language skills, with regular work on grammar and syntax. However, we will also devote significant amounts of time to discussing the content of what we read. We will also consider Herodotus' place as the "Father of History" and investigate his account of the Persian Wars, as well as early Spartan and Athenian history.


LAT 106 Foundational Intensive Latin

Professor: C. Callanan/K. Hahnemann

CRN: 91759 Distribution: D

Time: M W F 11:40 am - 12:40 pm LC 210

Tu 11:40 am - 12:40 pm LC 118

Th 11:40 am - 12:40 pm OLIN 308

Tu Th 3:40 pm - 4:40 pm LC 210

In this team-taught course, students with little or no prior knowledge of Latin learn both to read Latin and to use the language actively. Latin will be spoken as much as possible in class (explanations will be given in English). Materials consist as soon and as far as possible of unchanged Latin texts (not artificial sentences), including poetry and songs, and of drills, exercises and grammatical explanations (in English) provided by the instructors. The three areas of concentration: generating, reading and performing the language, will be emphasized alone or in various combinations during individual classes, so that successive classes or classes on successive days will look and feel quite different. Latin will be learned in so far as possible as a living language (Latinitas viva!), much the way any other foreign language is learned, not be rote memorization of tables of forms. The experience will result in the dramatic production by the students of part of a Roman comedy. By the end of the semester, students should also be able to deal on their own (with the help of a dictionary) with most Latin texts and to hold their own in conversation. Eight credits.

LAT 201 Intermediate Latin I

Professor: K. Hahnemann

CRN: 91760 Distribution: D

Time: M W F 9:00 am - 10:15 am OLIN 310

An introduction to the literature and culture of the Roman Republic. Readings will include both poetry and prose and will also provide an introduction to colloquial latin and the opportunity to practice it in class. The course is open to students with one year of college Latin or the equivalent. Students with High School Latin are certainly welcome and should see the instructor about placement.


SANS 101 Sanskrit I

Professor: C. Callanan

CRN: 91915 Distribution: D

Time: M T W Th 9:00 am - 10:15 am LC 210

Sanskrit is the language of ancient India, the language in which such works as the Bhagavad Gita, and Vedas, the great Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana, and the Upanishads were written. In this course, students will learn the grammar and syntax of Classical Sanskrit and acquire a working vocabulary. In the second semester, students will be reading substantial passages from Sanskrit authors.


FREN 101 Basic French I

Professor: O. Chilton

CRN: 91623 Distribution: D

Time:M T W Th 9:20 am ­ 10:20 am LC 118

Introduction to the language through the study of basic grammatical structures, oral expressions, and simple composition. The emphasis is on the spoken language in everyday usage. Gradually more complex structures and increasingly larger vocabulary are introduced in a natural way in the conversation and in relation to cultural context. One hour of language lab per week is required. Indivisible.

FREN 103X Intermediate French I

Professor: O. Chilton

CRN: 91624 Distribution: D

Time:M Tue Th 10:30 am ­ 11:30 am LC 118

A course designed for students who have completed Basic French or two years of high­school French. The emphasis will be placed on building vocabulary and reinforcing familiarity with grammar. Through the reading of short texts, students will be encouraged to express themselves with confidence and accuracy on a variety of topics both in speaking and in writing.

FREN 210 Conversation & Composition

Professor: M. Lienard

CRN: 91761 Distribution: D

Time: Tu W Th 2:50 pm - 3:50 pm LC 120

Short stories, video news programs, newspaper and magazine articles will be used to help students reinforce skills for composition and discussion on a variety of topics. The last weeks of the semester will be devoted to reading and analyzing a novel.

FREN 323 Dialogues sur la Condition Humaine

Professor: M. Lienard

CRN: 91916 Distribution: B/D

Time: Tu 4:00 pm - 6:00 pm LC 120

We will be reading works by Malraux, Sartre, De Beauvoir, Camus and Mauriac with special focus on the way they dealt with the "death of god" and what Malraux called "la condition humaine." Particular attention will be given to Malraux and Mauriac, because they represent explicitly contrasted political and metaphysical approaches to these questions.

FREN 405 Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot

Professor: J. Rosenberg

CRN: 91625 Distribution: C/D

Time:M 1:20 pm ­ 3:20 pm OLIN 306

A study of representative works by three authors who were instrumental in affecting and shaping thoughts, feelings and attitudes on religion and faith in general, political freedoms and institutions, social values, the Arts and Sciences, that still prevail. In our reading we trace those ideas that represent a radical departure from old norms, beliefs and practices and examine closely the literary forms and techniques used by each respective writer to convey his message convincingly and artistically. Particular attention will be paid to Voltaire's Candide, Rousseau's La Nouvelle Héloise, Diderot's La Religieuse. Short but frequent oral and written critical reports. Prerequisite: fluency in French.


GER 101 A Beginning German I

Professor: L. Morris

CRN: 91626 Distribution: D

Time: Tu Th 2:50 pm - 3:50 pm LC 208

W F 9:20 am - 10:20 am LC 208

For students with little or no previous instruction in German. This course is designed to develop listening comprehension and speaking proficiency as well as reading and writing skills. Instruction will include grammar drills, review of readings, communication practice, guided composition, and language lab exercises. Readings furnish insights into many aspects of German civilization and culture, thus conveying to students what life is like in the German­speaking countries today. Indivisible.

GER 200 Transitional German

Professor: S. Kufner

CRN: 92230 Distribution: D

Time: M Th F 9:00 am - 10:00 am OLIN 306

This course is designed for students who have completed approximately two years of high school German. While the emphasis will be on a review and an expansion of elementary grammar, all four language skills (speaking, aural comprehension, reading, writing) as well as cultural proficiency will be sharpened. Extensive language lab work will be combined with conversational practice, reading of modern German texts, and writing simple compositions. Successful completion will allow students to continue with German 202 in the spring.

GER 303 Grimms Märchen

Professor: F. Kempf

CRN: 91627 Distribution: B/D

Time:M Th 11:40 am ­ 12:40 pm LC 118

Close reading of selected tales with emphasis on language, plot, motif, image, and the relation to folklore. Critical examination and application of major approaches: Freudian, Jungian, Marxist, and feminist.

GER 317 German Poetry

Professor: L. Morris

CRN: 91628 Distribution: B/D

Time: W F 11:40 am - 12:40 pm PRE 101

Close readings and interpretations of the works of the major German poets of all periods, including Goethe, Schiller, Holderlin, Eichendorff, Heine, Rilke, Brecht, Benn, Celan, Bachmann, and Enzensberger. Some emphasis will be placed on historical, social, and biographical backgrounds, cultural contexts, and patterns of continuity. Critical and creative assignments.

GER 408 Heinrich Heine

Professor: F. Kempf

CRN: 91629 Distribution: B/D

Time: Tue F 11:40 am ­ 12:40 pm OLIN 301

For Nietzsche, Heine was "the highest conception of the lyric poet. I seek in vain . . . for an equally sweet and passionate music. He possessed that divine malice without which I cannot conceive of perfection." Acquiring an appreciation of both the music and the malice of Heine's artistry is the primary goal of the seminar. Close reading of the collected poems and selected prose works (e.g Travel Sketches, political journalism, On the History and Philosophy in Germany). Significant attention will be paid to the cultural and political contexts of his works, with readings drawn from Marx, Hegel, Feuerbach, Madame de Staël, and Wagner. Conducted in German.


ITAL 106 Intensive Italian

Professor: M. Nicoletti

CRN: 91630 Distribution: D

Time:M T W Th 10:30 am ­ 12:30 pm OLIN 101

A single semester equivalent to Italian 101-102. This rapidly paced course is designed primarily for students who have successfully studied other foreign languages. It is open to others with the instructor's permission. Four ninety-minute classes and two hours of language laboratory. Eight credits.

ITAL 301 La Voce Femminile

Professor: M. Nicoletti

CRN: 91631 Distribution: D

Time: Tue Th 9:00 am ­ 10:20 am OLIN 310

Cross-listed: Gender Studies

A study of selected texts by twentieth­century women writers. Authors studied include Matilde Serao, Maria Messina, Carolina Invernizio, Grazia Deledda, Anna Banti, Elsa Morante, Natalia Ginzburg, Anna Maria Ortese, Dacia Maraini, Francesca San Vitale, Beatrice Solinas Donghi, and Milena Milani. These works are examined in their social and historical context. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussion. Frequent oral and written reports are assigned to develop language proficiency. Prerequisite: Italian 202 or 203, or the equivalent.

ITAL 305 Quattro Poeti Contemporanei: Pier Paolo

Pasolini, Mario Luzi, Andrea Zanzotto, Amelia Rosselli

Professor: S. Sartarelli

CRN: 91914 Distribution: D

Time: Th 3:50 pm ­ 5:50 pm OLIN 306

A close examination of four poets of postwar Italy, and the poetics that each represents: Pasolini, realism and social revolt; Luzi and the metaphysical and "Hermetic" traditions; Zanzotto, experimentalism and the problematics of language; Rosselli, lyricism and the limits of language. We shall read generous selections from the whole body of work of each poet, with occasional selections from other contemporaries, and attempt to determine how they reflect new and old approaches to poetry in Italy and define or re-define language and meaning. Classes will be conducted in Italian.


RUS 201 Intermediate Russian

Professor: L. Watton

CRN: 91633 Distribution: D

Time: M T W Th 9:30 am ­ 10:20 am OLIN 303

In addition to reviewing the basic principles of Russian morphology and syntax, this second­year Russian course pursues major topics in the pragmatics of Russian, such as verbal aspect, prefixation, and speech etiquette. Videos and a variety of original texts will be incorporated to further the goals of comprehension and practical proficiency.

RUS 210 Russian History on the Opera Stage

Professor: M. Kostalevsky

CRN: 91756 Distribution: n/a

Time: T 1:20 pm ­ 3:20 pm OLIN 304

Cross-listed: Music

In the context of Russian culture opera stands as the main genre for representing the musical character of the nation. Moreover, in the 19th century opera became the art form for the study of the nation's history. This course will offer students an opportunity to explore Russian history and literature through the medium of Russian opera. Its framework will cover historical events from the 9th to the 20th century. Study material will include literary texts, musical recordings, video, and films. The course is open to first-year students. No knowledge of Russian or training in music is required. All reading assignments are in English. Each student is expected to give an oral presentation and write a term paper on topics pertaining to Russian history, literature, and/or music.

RUS 404 The Golden Age of Russian Literature

Professor: M. Petrova

CRN: 91634 Distribution: n/a

Time:M W 1:20 pm ­ 2:40 pm OLIN 302

(conducted in Russian) This course is open to all upper­level students willing to continue their study of the Russian language and culture through poetry and prose. We will start with Russian Romantic prose and poetry of the first half of the nineteenth century, known as the golden age, and continue with an analysis of the origin and character of realist prose up to the 1880's. Close reading of short works by Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev and extracts from Dostoevsky.

NOTE: The Russian Intensive Program will be offered in January, 1997. Russian 101 is, therefore, not being offered this semester.


The Russian Intensive sequence provides the student who has no previous experience in Russian with the equivalent of 2 years of college Russian, in the course of the January Field Period, the spring semester, and a June program of study and travel at St. Petersburg University. The course introduces and activates the phonetic, grammatical, and syntactic foundations of contemporary spoken and written Russian. Audio-visual materials will be utilized. The June program in St. Petersburg includes 24 hours a week of Russian language classes, and an extensive cultural program of museum visits, theater performances and concerts, as well as tours of the environs of St. Petersburg. Successful completion of this program qualifies the student to pursue advanced Russian study as St. Petersburg State University in the Fall '97 semester, as well as advanced language study and cross-disciplinary tutorials at Bard. Russian 101 (January 1997, 4 credits) and Russian 102-201 (Spring 1997, 8 credits) are indivisible courses. The June course carries four credits. Financial aid will be made available for qualified students.

For further information please contact Lindsay Watton or Marina Petrova. Although formal registration for the Russian Intensive Program will not take place until November, interested students are strongly encouraged to contact Professors Watton and Petrova as soon as possible.


SPAN 106 Spanish Intensive

Professor: M. Nicholson

CRN: 91635 Distribution: B/D

Time: M T W Th 9:00 am ­ 10:00 am LC 120

M T W Th 11:00 am ­ 12:00 pm LC 120

This course is designed to enable students with little or no previous knowledge of Spanish to complete three semesters of college Spanish in five months (eight credits at Bard and four credits in Mexico in January). Students will attend eight hours of class per week plus two hours with the Spanish tutor. Emphasis will be on oral communication. Oral communication and reading and writing skills will be developed through a variety of approaches. The text, Espanol en espanol, will be supplemented by the innovative video program Destinos, frequent drill in the language laboratory, and a variety of cultural activities outside of class. During the month in Mexico, students will complete daily intensive study of Spanish at a language institute, live with a Mexican family, and make excursions to surrounding areas of interest. Admission by permission of the instructor.

SPAN 201 Intermediate Spanish

Professor: L. Alvarez

CRN: 91636 Distribution: D

Time: Tu W F 9:20 am - 10:20 am OLIN 107

For students who have completed Spanish 101­102. This course is designed to perfect the student's command of all four language skills (speaking, aural comprehension, reading, and writing). This will be achieved through an intensive grammar review, conversational practice, reading of modern Spanish texts, writing simple compositions, and language lab work.

SPAN 301 Interpretation of Hispanic Texts

Professor: L. Alvarez

CRN: 91899 Distribution: B/D

Time: Tue Th 1:20 pm - 2:40 pm OLIN 107

This course will provide an introduction to the literary analysis of texts--novels, short stories, poetry, and essays from Latin America and Spain. This course should serve as preparation for more advanced courses in Spanish literature. Attention will be paid to developing skills in reading and analytical writing. Students will improve their spoken Spanish through class discussions and oral presentations. Conducted in Spanish.

SPAN 330 The Short Narrative in Latin American


Professor: M. Nicholson

CRN: 91638 Distribution: D

Time:M W 1:20 pm ­ 2:40 pm LC 120

This course will trace the development of brief narrative forms from the Modernista period at the beginning of the twentieth century to the present. Expanding the boundaries of the traditional short story, we will examine the prose vignettes of Juan Jose Arreola, the ficciones of Jorge Luis Borges, and short novels by Juan Rulfo and Elena Poniatowska. In addition to these authors, we will read works by Horacio Quiroga, Ernesto Sábato, Julio Cortázar, Gabriel García Marquez, Ana Lydia Vega, and Rosario Castellanos. Critical theory of the narrative as well as relevant historical and cultural issues will be part of class discussion. Conducted in Spanish.

SPAN 340 Cervantes' Don Quijote

Professor: L. Alvarez

CRN: 91639 Distribution: B/D

Time: Th 10:30 am - 12:30 pm PRE 101

Cervantes' Don Quijote was perhaps the first European bestseller, widely translated and reprinted within a few years of its original publication in Spanish. Despite a royal prohibition on importing fictional works to the New World, it was smuggled there in large quantities. A false sequel was published by an enterprising imitator and Cervantes was forced to kill off his would-be knight in the second volume. In his playful experimentation with narrative structure, biting satire of Renaissance literary form such as the pastoral, Byzantine and picaresque novels and the novela de caballeria, Cervantes explored the transformative powers of the imagination and created what has often been called the first "modern" novel. In this course we will read Cervantes' Don Quijote as well as some of his Novelas ejemplares and Entremeses and attempt to define his theory of the novel and its impact on European literature. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Interpretation of Hispanic Texts.