92108

HIST 101

 Europe from 1350-1815

Alice Stroup

 T  Th    1:30-2:50 pm

OLIN 107

HA

HIST

Who made "Europe?" How did power, wealth, and literacy spread north- and westward from the ancient near eastern and Mediterranean worlds?  How did two new religions, Christianity and Islam, become established politically?  How did ideology and power play out in medieval and early modern times?  How did Jews, Christians, and Muslims reconcile monotheism to ancient philosophy?  How, despite recurring famines and epidemics, did the "Little Ice Age" (1300-1815) yield the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment?  What is the connection between the Atlantic Slave Trade  (1500-1800) and the Industrial Revolution?  We will read historians and historical sources to debate answers to these questions. Class size: 18

 

92103

AS / HIST 101

 Intro to American civilizations

Christian Crouch

M  W      11:50-1:10 pm

OLIN 203

MBV

HUM

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; Experimental Humanities; Historical Studies  The cries of "No Taxation without Representation!" and the celebration of the American Revolution make the transformation of English North American into "these United States of America" seem like a seamless process. In reality, this process was fraught, violent, contested, and uncertain. This course offers an introduction into the intedisciplinary methods of American Studies by considering this history via cultural production from the colonial period through today. We trace the winding process of becoming and defining "American" from English beginnings in piracy in the Caribbean (the first attempts to claim an empire in the Western Hemisphere) up through the the early Republic. Each week will also consider the implications of colonial history on current American flashpoints of migration, culture, gender equity, and Indigenous rights.  Class size: 22

 

92297

JS / HIST 101

 INTRODUCTION TO JEWISH STUDIES

Cecile Kuznitz

 T  Th    3:10–4:30 pm

OLIN 308

MBV

D+J

HUM

DIFF

Cross-listed: History, Religion  This interdisciplinary course will introduce students to major themes in the field of Jewish Studies. The primary focus will be on the history of the Jewish people and on Judaism as a religion, but we will also examine topics in Jewish literature, society, and politics. The course will treat selected themes from the Biblical period to the present, but with a greater emphasis on the medieval and especially the modern period. Among the issues to be explored: What role has the Land of Israel played in Jewish life, and how have Jews responded to their nearly 2,000-year experience of exile and Diaspora? How have they negotiated both the “push” of antisemitism and the “pull” of assimilation to maintain distinct forms of community and identity? What role have various types of texts played in Jewish culture, and what is their relationship to lived Jewish experience? Finally, what are the implications of such momentous recent events as the Holocaust, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the rise of the American Jewish community?

Class size: 18

 

92111

HIST 117

 Inclusion at Bard

Myra Armstead

 T           3:10-4:30 pm

HEG 201

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; American Studies  (2 credits)  The nation's colleges and universities have clearly served as stepping stones, remediating against racial inequalities by providing pathways toward upward mobility for blacks and other minorities. At the same time, historian Craig Wilder's EBONY AND IVY (2013), linking elite American institutions to slavery, Brown University's disclosures of the fortune made in the trans-Atlantic slave trade by its founders, and the recent acknowledgement by Georgetown University of its sale of slaves to pay off antebellum debts are just a few examples of the ways in which the role played by institutions of higher learning in reproducing racial and other social hierarchies in the United States has been proven. How have these contradictory dynamics manifested themselves at Bard College? In this Engaged Liberal Arts and Sciences (ELAS) course, we will explore this question by reviewing the College's evolving admissions policies toward historically underrepresented students and learning the experiences of alumni of color at the College. Social profile, oral history, and mapping methodologies have been utilized in past versions of this course. This time, these will be expanded to include investigations into the business relations of key College founders.  Class size: 22

 

92112

HIST 127

 Intro TO Modern Japanese History

Robert Culp

M  W      10:10-11:30 am

OLIN 203

HA

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Asian Studies; Global & International Studies Japan in the mid-19th century was beleaguered by British and American imperialism and rocked by domestic turmoil. How, then, did it become an emerging world power by the early 20th century? Why did Japan’s transformations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries lead to the total war of the 1930s and 1940s? And why did the horrible destruction experienced after World War II ultimately result in rapid economic growth and renewed global importance for Japan after the 1950s? These questions provide the framework for our study of modern Japanese history. Throughout the course we will focus special attention on Japan’s distinctive urban culture, the changing role of women in Japanese society, the re-invention of Japan’s imperial institution, the domestic and international effects of Japanese imperialism, and the question of the United States’ role in Japan’s post-war reconstruction. Readings of drama, fiction, satire, and memoir will contribute to our exploration of these and other topics. No prior study of Japan is necessary; first-year students are welcome.  Class size: 22

 

92113

HIST 134

 THE Ottomans & THE Last Islamic EmpIRE

Omar Cheta

 T  Th    1:30-2:50 pm

OLIN 202

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Middle Eastern Studies  In the aftermath of World War I, the Ottoman Empire disappeared from the world scene. In its place arose numerous states, which today make up the Middle East and significant parts of Eastern Europe. In all of these “post-Ottoman” states, the memory of the Ottoman Empire is well and alive. For example, it is in relation to the Ottoman legacy that modern Middle Eastern and East European national identities were constructed and claims to national borders settled (or not). This course is a general historical survey of Ottoman history from the founding of the empire around 1300 until its collapse in the aftermath of World War I. The course covers major topics in Ottoman history, including the empire’s origins, its Islamic and European identities, everyday life under the Ottomans, inter-communal relations, the challenge of separatist movements (Balkan, Greek, Arab) and the emergence of modern Turkish nationalism. Class size: 22

 

92114

HIST 141

 A HAUNTED UNION: 20th CENTURY Germany AND THE UnifICATION of Europe

Gregory Moynahan

 T  Th    1:30-2:50 pm

OLINLC 206

HA

HIST

Cross-listed: German Studies, Human Rights  The development of the German nation-state has been at the center of nearly every dystopian reality and utopian aspiration of modern continental Europe. This course will examine the history of the German-speaking lands from Napoleon's dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 through the development of the German state in 1871, the cataclysmic initiation by this state of the two twentieth-century World Wars, and the creation of the new political entity of the European Union.  Attention will placed throughout on the dialog of Germany and Europe in relation to regional structural issues, particularly state form and Realpolitik, capitalism and communism, the 'second-industrial revolution' and institutional development, and state control or surveillance and systems of rights.  Using an array of primary documents, we will examine Germany's pivotal place in the ideological divisions, political catastrophes, and -- more optimistically -- theoretical, political, and scientific innovations of modern Europe. As a guiding theme, we will use the paradox that even as Germany is chronologically perhaps the most 'modern' of European states, its definition - and with it the identity of its citizens - has been haunted since inception by its heterogeneous past.  Topics of particular importance will include: the multiple 'unifications' of Germany (as a culture, a state, a racist 'greater' Germany, a reunified power within the European Union), the role of 'German' and 'European' identity in colonial expansion and Nazi propaganda, 'scientific' racism and the Holocaust, the development of the DDR and BRD, the consolidation of the European Union since 1951, and the student protests of 1968.  Class size: 20

 

92115

HIST 143

 European Diplomatic History

Sean McMeekin

M  W      11:50-1:10 pm

RKC 101

HA

HIST

Cross-listed: Global & International Studies; Russian Studies  A survey of the major developments in European diplomatic history between the Treaty of Westphalia and the outbreak of World War I.  Key themes of discussion will include the changing nature of diplomacy and international order; the rise of the nation state and standing armies; war finance and the bond market; the French Revolutionary upheaval, the Industrial Revolution, and ideological responses to them (eg, liberalism, nationalism/irredentism, conservatism, socialism, and anarchism).  The course concludes with an examination of the high era of imperialism and the origins of the First World War. Class size: 24

 

92110

HIST 204

 Environmentalism of the Poor

Alice Stroup

 T  Th    10:10-11:30 am

OLIN 107

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Environmental & Urban Studies  Who is an environmentalist?  What is environmentalism? The American tradition features Henry David Thoreau, Teddy Roosevelt, Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, and the Sierra Club.  It favors myths of wilderness.  But economist Joan Alier-Martinez, historian Ramachandra Guha, environmentalist-humanist Rob Nixon, and others contrast Northern and Southern Hemisphere, rich and poor, values.  After reading their analyses of people's movements around the world, we will study the environmentalism of the disadvantaged -- including Native-Americans, African-Americans, Latinx and the working classes -- in the United States.  Class size: 18

 

92657

HIST 2135

 RESISTANCE & COLLABORATION IN THE HOLOCAUST

Cecile Kuznitz

  T  Th     1:30-2:50 pm

OLIN 305

HA

D+J

HIST

Cross-listed: German  Studies; Human Rights; Jewish Studies  This course will consider the concepts of resistance and collaboration as they apply to the actions of victims and bystanders during the Holocaust. We will begin with an overview of the history of the Holocaust and the main questions that scholars have asked about this and other instances of genocide. We will then examine various definitions of resistance and collaboration, including patterns of reaction variously termed passive, armed, cultural, and spiritual resistance. We will also look at the range of behaviors among bystander groups ranging from collaboration and inaction to rescue. Our focus will be the Jewish communities of Poland, the largest to fall under Nazi rule. By reading a number of scholars with widely varying views, including Hannah Arendt, Yehuda Bauer, and Isaiah Trunk, we will grapple with the issues raised on several levels: Theoretically, what are the most useful definitions of these terms?  Empirically, how can we understand the extent of resistance and collaboration that took place historically? Ethically, how can we access behavior as “reasonable” or morally justified in such extreme circumstances?

Class size: 22

 

92153

HIST 2142

 Harlem, Bronzeville, SoUTH Central: THE MAKING OF THE AMERICAN GHETTO

Myra Armstead

 T  Th    1:30-2:50 pm

OLIN 203

HA

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; American Studies; Environmental & Urban Studies  While pockets of African-American residential concentration have existed in American cities since the colonial period, the black ghetto relatively large, dense, and racially monolithic--has been a feature of the American urban landscape only for the past century. In this course, we will address the cultural, social, economic, and political factors that created, defined, and sustained these areas from without and within, and in the contemporary context work to unmake the "hood.” Although we will use New York City’s Harlem, Chicago’s Bronzeville, and Los Angeles’s South Central sections as major case studies of common historical ghetto formation and evolution, we will also draw from other pertinent examples.  Class size: 22

 

92149

HIST 219

THE  Past AND Present OF Capitalism in THE  MIDDLE EAST

Omar Cheta

 T  Th    11:50-1:10 pm

OLIN 309

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Global & International Studies; Middle Eastern Studies The primary focus of the course is capitalism as it was understood and practiced in the Middle East during the periods of European colonization and postcolonial nationalism. Hence, it addresses differences based on citizenship status, class, geography, nationality, political affiliation, religion and socio-economic background. Additionally, the course engages critically with questions of difference and inequality between colonial and nationalist rulers, colonized populations, and ethnic and religious minority groups. Class size: 18

 

92150

LAIS / HIST 220

 Mexican History & Culture

Miles Rodriguez

 T  Th    10:10-11:30 am

OLIN 204

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Global & International Studies; Historical Studies  There is no abstract or timeless Mexican culture. Nor does Mexican history happen independently of its changing cultural contexts. This course explores the complex relationship between history and culture from Mexico’s pre-conquest indigenous origins to the Mexican Revolution and the contemporary nation-state. The course begins with Mexico’s most durable foundational myths, visions, and symbols, such as the image of an eagle grasping a serpent on a cactus on the Mexican flag and the Virgin of Guadalupe. Using primary sources like codices and native language writings as well as anthropological, historical, literary, and poetic texts, it traces the major cultural continuities and revolutions to the present. The goal of the course is to understand the world’s largest Spanish-speaking country, its vibrant history and culture, and its critical relations with the US. Special topics include the Mexican Revolution, religious devotions and wars, indigenous cultures and rights, Mexican death culture, and the Drug War.  LAIS Core Course. Class size: 22

 

92154

HIST 2237

 Radio Africa: Broadcasting HistORY

Drew Thompson

M  W      1:30-2:50 pm

HEG 204

HA

D+J

HIST

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; Experimental Humanities; Global & International Studies; Human Rights; Science, Technology, Society  The radio is a type of technological innovation that was party to Africa’s colonization and decolonization. While colonial authorities used the radio to broadcast news reports and to internally transmit governing strategies, local African communities sometimes appropriated the radio for both political and entertainment purposes. This course uses the technological history of the radio in Africa to explore histories of political activism, leisure, cultural production and entertainment across Sub-Saharan Africa from colonial to present times. From a topical perspective, the course will cover the development of radio stations and distribution markets, the politics of programming and censorship, international development agencies’ push for community radio, and radio dramas. Using theoretical texts on sound, affect and oral tradition, students will identify different cultures of listening with the aim of unpacking what it means to use words and music in order to “broadcast” history. As a final project and in conjunction with the Human Rights Program’s Radio Initiative, students will design a podcast on a topic of historical relevance to the course.  Class size: 22

 

92155

HIST 2238

 Africa and the Indian Ocean

Drew Thompson

M  W      11:50-1:10 pm

HEG 204

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; Experimental Humanities; Global & International Studies The Indian Ocean travels along Africa’s Swahili Coast, and for some time has facilitated the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Africa and Asia. In addition to being an oceanic divide, the Indian Ocean is a historiographical tradition through which to think about Africa’s historical past in ways not permitted by the Black Atlantic tradition. This course seeks to engage the Indian Ocean as both an object of study and a theoretical lens onto Africa’s history. In turn, it will consider the ways that populations in Africa and Asia even before European colonization engaged with the Ocean in their daily lives as well as how such activities like fishing, sailing and farming reshaped geographies of colonization and resistance in East and Central Africa. Students will use architectural plans and traveler accounts to reconstruct the historical origins of slave and trading towns on the Swahili Coast. Participants will also consider how this early history set the backdrop against which not only nationalist movements fought for Southern Africa’s independence but the Cold War played out in Africa. This colonial and nationalist context offers an analytical space to revisit more recent engagements with the Indian Ocean, particularly China’s and Brazil’s renewed interest with the region, the mineral wars of the Great Lakes, and the identity politics at play around displaced migrant communities. This course seeks to use the history of the Indian Ocean as it relates to Africa in order to prompt a rethinking of the geographical and theoretical axes along which we engage with African histories of colonialism, nationalism, and decolonization. Class size: 22

 

92151

HIST 225

 Migrants and Refugees in THE Americas

Miles Rodriguez

 T  Th    11:50-1:10 pm

OLIN 203

HA

D+J

HIST

Cross-listed: American Studies; Global & International Studies; Human Rights; Latin American Studies  The Border. The Ban. The Wall. Raids. Deportations. Separation of Families. Immigrant Rights. Sanctuary. Refugee Resettlement. These words - usually confined to policy, enforcement, and activism related to migrants and refugees - have recently exploded into the public view and entered into constant use. The current political administration made migratory and refugee enforcement, and of migration more generally, a centerpiece of its electoral campaign and the subject of its first executive orders, generating broad public controversy. Most migration to the US is from Latin America, by far the largest single migrant population is from Mexico, and the rise of Central American migration has proved enduring. Focusing on south-north migration from these Latin American regions, this class argues that it is impossible to understand the current political situation in the US without studying the relatively lesser-known history of migrant and refugee human rights over the last three decades, including massive protests, movements for sanctuary, and attempts at reform and enforcement. The class takes into account shifting global demographics, changing reasons for migration, rapid legal and political changes, complex enforcement  policies and practices, and powerful community movements for reform, which are often forgotten  with the opening and closing of a given news cycle. The class also argues that migrant and refugee voices matter and are critical to understanding migration as an historical and current problem. The course includes migrant, refugee, and activist narratives, and an array of historical, legal, political, and other primary sources. Its goal is to create a more complete historical understanding of Latin American-origin migration in the contemporary US context. Class size: 22

 

92677

HIST 230

 US-RUSSIA RELATIONS FROM TEHRAN TO YALTA

David Woolner

  F       10:10am-12:30 pm

RKC 101

HA

HIST

Cross-listed: Global & International Studies  For most Americans, the most controversial—and famous—summit meeting of the Second World War remains the Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945), where in the minds of many conservative critics, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt essentially handed over control of Poland and much of Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union.  What is often overlooked, however, is that most of the agreements and understandings achieved at Yalta were first discussed over a year earlier at the Tehran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943). Viewed from this perspective the Yalta Conference represents the moment at which “the Big Three” put the finishing touches on what was already agreed at the Tehran gathering. In light of this, most historians agree that understanding the Tehran Conference—code-named Eureka—represents a far more important exercise than studying what took place at “Eureka II,” the initial code-name for the Yalta Summit. The aim of this  course is to provide students with a deeper understanding of the importance of the Tehran Conference and US-Russian relations in the latter stages of the Second World War. Students will use archival material available through the FDR Presidential Library to gain a more nuanced understanding of what took place at the Tehran Conference and how these negotiations affected the future of US-Russian relations, not only during the war, but after.  Students will also be encouraged to look for “key documents,” images and materials that may be used in an exhibit exploring the Tehran Conference and its influence on Yalta that will take place at the Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library in St. Petersburg Russia towards the end of term. Moderated history concentrators can take this course as a major conference with permission from the instructor and additional research and writing assignments.

** Four of the Fridays will involve 5 hour visits to the FDR Library in Hyde Park. Transportation will be provided. The dates are Sept. 28, Oct. 12, Oct. 19 and Nov. 2. Class size: 18

 

92253

CLAS / HIST 236

 The Fall of the Roman Empire

David Ungvary

 T  Th    3:10-4:30 pm

OLIN 203

HA

HIST

Cross-listed: Historical Studies; Literature  At the end of the third century AD, the Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Asia Minor. It was so vast that its administration was divided into eastern and western zones. Two hundred years later, the Empire lost control of most of its western provinces. The events associated with these losses constitute the “Fall of the Roman Empire.” This course takes an interdisciplinary perspective (incorporating archaeological, scientific, and literary evidence) to explore the causes behind the collapse of the imperial structure, and to assess the afterlife of Roman culture in the “Barbarian” West through the seventh century. It will track not only how institutions of government and religion changed, but also how human imaginations, identities, values, and cultural commitments evolved in response to crisis and in the aftermath of empire. Readings (in English translation) will introduce students to historians (Gregory of Tours), poet-philosophers (Boethius), theologians (Augustine), and letter writers (Sidonius Apollinaris) who reacted with astonishing self-awareness and creativity to their changing Roman worlds. By the end of the course, students will be equipped to produce historically sensitive close readings of late ancient texts, and to parse them with an eye toward categories of culture and identity. They can also expect to develop their own answers to one of ancient history’s most vexing questions: did the fall of the Roman Empire signal “the triumph of barbarism” and the “end of civilization,” or did continuity prevail?  No previous knowledge of Rome is assumed.  Class size: 22

 

92156

HIST 2631

 Capitalism and Slavery

Christian Crouch

M  W      1:30-2:50 pm

OLIN 204

HA

HIST

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; American Studies; Human Rights (core course); Latin American Studies  Scholars have argued that there is an intimate relationship between the contemporary wealth of the developed world and the money generated through four hundred years of chattel slavery in the Americas and the transatlantic slave trade. Is there something essential that links capitalism, even liberal democratic capitalism, to slavery? How have struggles against slavery and for freedom and rights, dealt with this connection? This course will investigate the development of this linkage, studying areas like the gender dynamics of early modern Atlantic slavery, the correlation between coercive political and economic authority, and the financial implications of abolition and emancipation.  We will focus on North America and the Caribbean from the early 17th century articulation of slavery through the staggered emancipations of the 19th century. The campaign against the slave trade has been called the first international human rights movement – today does human rights discourse simply provide a human face for globalized capitalism, or offer an alternative vision to it?  Questions of contemporary reparations, rising colonialism and markets of the nineteenth century, and the 'duty' of the Americas to Africa will also be considered.  Readings will include foundational texts on capitalism and a variety of historical approaches to the problem of capitalism within slavery, from economic, cultural, and intellectual perspectives.  There are no prerequisites, although HIST 130, 2133, or 263 all serve as introductory backgrounds. Class size: 22

 

92157

HIST 3103

 Political Ritual  IN THE Modern World

Robert Culp

   Th       10:10-12:30 pm

OLIN 306

HA

D+J

HIST

DIFF

Cross-listed: Anthropology; Asian Studies; Experimental Humanities; Global & International Studies; Human Rights; Sociology  The Olympic opening ceremony, military parades, the US presidential inaugural, the Imperial Durbar, Bastille Day, pageants reenacting the Bolshevik Revolution, and all modes of political protest. In all these forms and many others, political ritual has been central to nation-building, colonialism, and political movements over the last three centuries. This course uses a global, comparative perspective and readings from a range of academic disciplines to analyze the modern history of political ritual. We will explore the emergence of new forms of political ritual with the rise of the nation-state in the nineteenth century and track global transformations in the performance of politics as colonialism spread the symbols and pageantry of the nation-state. Central topics will include state ritual and the performance of power, the relationship between ritual and citizenship in the modern nation-state, the ritualization of politics in social and political movements, and the power of mediated mass spectacle in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seminar meetings will focus on discussion of secondary and primary materials that allow us to analyze the intersection of ritual and politics in a variety of contexts. These will range from early-modern Europe, pre-colonial Bali, and late-imperial China to revolutionary France, 19th-century America, colonial India, post-colonial Africa, several fascist and socialist states, Europe in 1968, the modern Middle East, and the contemporary global marketplace. In addition to common readings and seminar participation, students will do a final project exploring one aspect or instance of political ritual. Moderated history students can use this course for a major conference; Experimental Humanities students are encouraged to do a multi-media project. Class size: 15

 

92204

HIST 3138

 HOW TO READ AND Write THE History of THE (POST) COLONIAL WORLD

Omar Cheta

  W         10:10-12:30 pm

OLIN 304

HA

D+J

HIST

Cross-listed: Global & International Studies; Middle Eastern Studies In this seminar, we will study the most prominent approaches to writing the history of the colonial and post-colonial worlds, especially the Middle East and South Asia. Our primary goal will be to think about historical narratives of the (post-) colonial worlds as constructed artifacts and as products of certain intellectual environments. For each meeting, we will explore an influential school of historical writing, such as the French Annales or Italian Microhistory. Alongside these explorations, we will study examples of the scholarship on (post-) colonial history that engage with these historiographical traditions. Our discussions will revolve around the possibilities and limits of writing history in light of the existent historical sources, academic and disciplinary norms, other disciplinary influences (especially from literature and anthropology), as well as present political considerations. Class size: 15

 

92205

HIST 3148

 AFRICA AND THE POST-COLONY: A STUDY IN METHOD AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Drew Thompson

 T           10:10-12:30 pm

OLIN 306

HA

D+J

HIST

Cross-listed: Africana Studies; Global & International Studies; Human Rights   Africa’s history has been framed around the moment of colonial contact and the resulting chronological constructions of pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial. Scholars have interpreted this idea of the post-colonial as a temporal disjuncture, after colonialism. This class is a course in the reading of theory and the history of theory in Africa, and it will shift away from the temporal understanding of the post-colonial concept in order to conceptualize the postcolonial (without a hyphen) as a theoretical shift and site of engagement over the discourses of colonialism, nationalism, race, and globalization. Drawing from scholars and political theorists from the African continent as well as Subaltern Studies, students will cover the topics of historiography, the relationship of power to knowledge production, and critiques of colonialism, nationalism, and apartheid.  Class size: 15

 

92206

HIST 3224

 The Great War in World History

Wendy Urban-Mead

 T           4:40-7:00 pm

RKC 101

HA

D+J

HIST

This seminar examines changes and trends in the research and writing of history as practiced by professional historians. After brief consideration of the origins of history as a formal academic discipline in the 19th Century, and of the transition from political to social history in the mid-twentieth century, we also consider the shift from social history to the multiplicity of approaches that came out of the "theory explosion" between the 1960s and early 2000s. This course draws from the fields of modern European, African, and World History. Course readings shall consist mostly (but not entirely) of historical writing about the Great War from a variety of historiographical points of view. Readings   also include a wide range of primary materials. Conventional teaching on WWI tends to follow the diplomatic history approach, and to emphasize the war on the western front. To enlarge this view, we will read not only from the classic “causes of WWI" literature, but also from gender, cultural, and post­ colonial treatments of the war, and read about the impact  of the war on the eastern front, on China, in Africa. Working with this diversity of texts gives us the opportunity explicitly to discuss how different historiographical approaches change how we understand “what happened."  This course satisfies the historiography requirement for Historical Studies concentrators; it may also serve as a Major Conference if arranged with the instructor. This course is cross-listed with the MAT program for 4+1 students in social studies/history.  Class size: 5