The following bibliography lists studies in Western languages on the history and appreciation of gardens in China. For a comprehensive, topically ordered bibliography of 20th-century studies (including those in Chinese and Japanese) refer to Stanislaus Fung's "Guide to secondary sources on Chinese gardens," in Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 269-286. For an up-to-date, annotated bibliography refer to Sanislaus Fung's "Gardens" chapter in the "Chinese Studies" section of the Oxford Bibliographies website. For additional literature consult the bibliography of holdings of the Herbert Offen Research Collection at the library of the Peabody Essex Museum.
Go to the alphabetical list
- Attiret, Jean-Denis, S.J. (1702-1768). "Lettre du Frere Attiret de la Compagnie de Jesus, Peintre au service de l'Empereur de la Chine. A M. d'Assaut. A Pekin, le 1. Novembre 1743," in Lettres édifiantes et curieuses écrites des missions étrangères par quelques missionnaires de la compagnie de Jésus. Paris: Guérin, 1749, 27:1-61. English translation of 1752 by Joseph Spence [Sir Harry Beaumont], A Particular Account of the Emperor of China's Gardens near Pekin. See digital transcript; or scan of an original edition. Rpt. in The English Landscape Garden, ed. John Dixon Hunt. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1982.
- Watelet, Claude-Henri, (1718-1786). "Le jardin chinois," in his Essay sur les jardins. Paris: Prault, 1774, 125-137. Online via Bibliothèque nationale de France.
- Cibot, Pierre Martial (1727-1780). "Le jardin de Sée-ma-Kouang, poeme," [pdf] in Mémoirs concernant l'histoire, les sciences, les arts, les moeurs, les usages, etc. des chinois par les missionaires de Pé-kin. Paris: Nyon, 1777, vol. 2, pp. 642-650. A pdf of this book is available from the Bibliothèque nationale de France or Google Books).
- Cibot, Pierre Martial (1727-1780). "Essai sur les jardins de plaisance des chinois," [pdf] in Mémoirs concernant l'histoire, les sciences, les arts, les moeurs, les usages, etc. des chinois par les missionaires de Pé-kin. Paris: Nyon, 1782, vol. 8, pp. 301-326 (available in pdf from the Bibliothèque nationale de France or Google Books).
- Barrow, John. Travels in China, containing descriptions, observations, and comparisons, made and collected in the course of a short residence at the imperial palace of Yuen-min-yuen, and on a subsequent journey through the country from Pekin to Canton... Download as pdf via Google books. Philadelphia: W.F. M'Laughlin, 1805.
- Callery, J. M. "Architecture chinoise: maisons de campagne, jardins," La Revue de l'Architecture et des Travaux publics, 17 (1859).
- Wrenn, Reginald. "On Formal Gardens in China," House & Garden 5 (1904), 193-142.
- Laufer, Berthold. "The Wang Ch'uan T'u. A Landscape of Wang Wei," Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 1 (1912-1913), 28-55.
- Kerby, Kate. An Old Chinese Garden. A Three-fold Masterpiece of Poetry, Calligraphy and Painting, by Wen Chen Ming, Famous Landscape Artist of the Ming Dynasty. Studies written by Kate Kerby, Translations by Mo Zung Chung. Shanghai: Chung Hwa Book Co., 1922.
- Ayscough, Florence Wheelock (1878-1942). "The Chinese Idea of a Garden," China Journal of Science and Arts 1 (1923.1), 15-22. Rpt. in A Chinese Mirror: Being Reflections of the Reality Behind Appearance. London: Cape; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1925, pp. 213-156 (Chapter 3).
- von Delius, Rudolf. Der chinesische Garten. Stuttgart und Heilbronn: Walter Seifert Verlag, 1923.
- Wilson, Ernest H. China: Mother of Gardens. Boston, MA: The Stratford Company, 1929.
- Elwood, Philip H. "Impressions of Garden Art in China and Japan," Landscape Architecture 20, 3 (April 1930), 192-200.
- Howard, Edwin Laclede. Chinese Garden Architecture: A Collection of Photographs of Minor Chinese Buildings. New York: Macmillan, 1931.
- Thurston, Matilda. "Beauty in Chinese Gardens," Asia: Journal of the American Asiatic Association 38 (August 1931), 514-530.
- Yeh, William Hung. The Mi Garden (Shaoyuan tulu kao). Beijing: Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series (Supplement no. 5), 1933.
- Malone, Carroll Brown. History of the Peking Summer Palaces under the Ch'ing Dynasty. Urbana: The University of Illinois, 1934 (rpt. New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1966).
Boynton, Grace M. "Notes on the Origin of Chinese Private Gardens. Condensed from the Chinese of Wu Shih Ch'ang," China Journal, 23 (July 1935), 17-22.
- Chiang, Yee. "Chinese Gardens," Landscape & Garden, 2 (1935), 144-148.
- Adam, Maurice. Yuanming yuan. L'oevre architecturale des anciens jésuites au XVIIIe siècle. Peiping: Imprimerie des Lazaristes, 1936.
- Nance, F.R. Soochow, The Garden City. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh Ltd., 1936
- Tung, Chuin. "Chinese Gardens in Kiangsu and Chekiang," Tien Hsia Monthly 3 (1936), 220-244.
- Graham, Dorothy. Chinese Gardens: Gardens of the Contemporary Scene, an Account of their Design and Symbolism. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1938.
- Boynton, Grace M. "The Lodge of the White Deer: A Chinese Scholar Garden," Bulletin of the Garden Club of America>, 7 (1940), 110-112.
- Chen, K.S., and George N. Kates. "Prince Kung's Palace and Its Adjoining Garden in Peking," Monumenta Serica 5 (1940), 1-80.
- Inn, Henry, and Shao-chung Lee eds. Chinese Houses and Gardens. Honolulu: Fong Inn, 1940.
- Yetts, W. Percival. "Notes on Flower Symbolism in China," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1 (January 1941), 1-21.
- Powell, Florence Lee. In the Chinese Garden: A Photographic Tour of the Complete Chinese Garden, with Text Explaining its Symbolism, as Seen in the Liu Yüan (the Liu Garden) and the Shih Tsu Lin (the Forest of Lions), Two Famous Chinese Gardens in the City of Soochow, Kiangsu Province, China. New York: John Day Co., 1943.
- Lancaster, Clay. "The European Palaces at the Yuanmingyuan," La Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1948), 261-314.
- Siren, Osvald. "Architectural Elements of the Chinese Garden," Architectural Review 103 (June 1948).
- Siren, Osvald. Gardens of China. New York: Ronald Press, 1949.
- Danby, Hope. The Garden of Perfect Brightness: The History of the Yuan Ming Yuan and of the Emperors who lived there. London: Henry Regnery Company, 1950.
- Hecken, J. L. van, and W.A. Grootaers. "The Half Acre Garden, Pan-mou Yüan," Monumenta Serica 18 (1959), 360-387.
- Li, Hui-lin. Garden Flowers of China. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1959.
- Wilhelm, Hellmut. "Shih Ch'ung and his Chi-ku Yüan," Monumenta Serica 18 (1959), 314-327.
- Schafer, Edward H. Tu Wan's Stone Catalogue of Cloudy Forest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.
- Schafer, Edward H. "Cosmos in Miniature: The Tradition of the Chinese Garden," Landscape 12, 3 (Spring 1963), 24-26.
- Vandermeersch, Leon. "L'arrangement de fleurs en Chine," Arts asiatiques 11 (1964), 79-140.
- Schafer, Edward H. "Li Te-yü and the Azalea," Asiatische Studien 18/19 (1965), 105-114.
- Schafer, Edward H. "The Idea of Created Nature in T'ang Literature," Philosophy East and West 15 (1965), 153-160.
- Pane, R. "Paesaggi e Giardini Chinesi," Casabella 304 (1966.4), 58-67.
- Schulz, Alexander. Hsi Yang Lou. Untersuchungen zu den 'Europäischen Bauten' des Kaisers Ch'ien-Lung. Würzburg.: Universität Würzburg, 1966.
- Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Real or Ideal: The Problem of the 'Elegant Gathering in the Western Garden' in Chinese Historical and Art Historical Records," Journal of the American Oriental Society 88, 3. (July-September 1968), 419-435.Download this article in pdf, if your library subscribes to JSTOR.
- Schafer, Edward. "Hunting Parks and Animal Enclosures in Ancient China," Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 11 (1968), 318-343.
- Weng, Wan-go. Gardens in Chinese Art. New York: China Institute in America, 1968.
- Bauer, Wolfgang. China und die Hoffnung auf Glück: Paradiese, Utopien, Idealvorstellungen in der Geistesgeschichte Chinas. München: Hanser, 1971.
- Loehr, George R. "L'artiste Jean-Denis Attiret et l'influence exercé par sa description des jardins impériaux," in La mission française de Pékin aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècle (Actes du colloque international de sinologie, Centre de recherches interdisciplinaire de Chantilly, 1974), Paris, 1976, 69-83.
- Plaks, Andrew H. Archetype and Allegory in the Dream of the Red Chamber (Chapter VII "The Chinese Literary Garden"; Chapter VIII "A Garden of Total Vision: The Allegory of the Ta-Kuan Yüan"). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
- Rainer, Roland. Die Welt als Garten - China. Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1976.
- Cooper, J.C. "The Symbolism of the Taoist Garden," in Studies in Comparative Religion (Fall 1977), 224-234.
- Jardin de Flore ed. Palais, pavillons et jardins construits par Giuseppe Castiglione, dans le domaine impérial du Yuan Ming Yuan au Palais d'Eté de Pékin. 20 planches gravées, de 1783 a 1786. Paris, Jardin de Flore, 1977.
- Bauer, Wolfgang. China and the Search for Happiness: Recurring Themes in Four Thousand Years of Chinese Cultural History. New York: Seabury Press, 1976. Translated from the 1971 German China und die Hoffnung auf Glück by Michael Shaw.
- Keswick, Maggie. The Chinese Garden: History, Art and Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1978. Reviews: by John Pilcher in Asian Affairs 11, pt.2 (June 1980), 196-198.
- Norer, Günther. Der chinesische Garten am Beispiel der chinesischen "Garten-Architektur". Wien: Adriane Verlag, 1978.
- Conner, Patrick. "China and the Landscape Garden: Reports, Engravings and Misconception," Art History (London) 2, 4 (December 1979), 429-440.
- Cranz, Galen. "The Useful and Beautiful: Urban Parks in China," in Landscape 23.2 (1979), 3-10.
- Fang-tu, Lien-che. "Ming Gardens," Papers in Far Eastern History 22 (September 1980), 1-15.
- Liu Dunzhen. La maison chinoise. Paris: Bibliothèque Berger-Levrault, 1980. Translation and adaptation by Georges Métailié et al. of Liu's Zhongguo zhuzhai gaishuo.
- Vance, Mary A. Gardens of China: Books in English. Monticello: Vance Bibliographies.
- Bai, Rixin. "The Old Summer Palace, Yuan Ming Yuan," China Reconstructs 30.2 (1981), 40-43.
- Markbreiter, Stephen. "Yu Yuan: A Shanghai Garden," Arts of Asia 9, 6 (November-December 1981), 99-110.
- Murck, Alfreda, and Wen Fong. "A Chinese Garden Court: The Astor Court at the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 38, 3 (Winter 1980-81), 1- 64 [download as pdf from JSTOR].
- Nan, Chung Wah. The Art of Chinese Gardens. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1982.
- Qiao, Yun ed. Classical Chinese Gardens. Hong Kong and Beijing: Joint Publishing Company Ltd., 1982.
- Vinograd, Richard. "Family Properties: Personal Context and Cultural Pattern in Wang Meng's Pien Mountains of 1366," Ars Orientalis 13 (1982), 1-29.
- Wood, Frances. "The Traditional Gardens of Suzhou," Garden History 10, 2 (Autumn 1982), 108-141.
- Yang Hongxun. The Classical Gardens of China: History and Design Techniques. Translated by Wang Huimin. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold, 1982.
- Barnhart, Richard. Peach Blossom Spring: Gardens and Flowers in Chinese Painting. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.
- Beuchert, Marianne. Die Gärten Chinas. Köln: Diederichs Verlag, 1983.
- Ledderose, Lothar. "The Earthly Paradise: Religious Elements in Chinese Landscape Art," in Theories of the Arts in China, Susan Bush and Christian Murck eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983, 165-183.
- Morris, Edwin T. The Gardens of China: History, Art and Meaning. New York: Scribners, 1983.
- Yu, Dejun (comp). The Botanical Gardens of China. Beijing: Science Press, 1983.
- Chen, Congzhou. Shuo yuan / On Chinese Gardens. Translated by Chen Xiongshan et al. Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1984.
- Fan Cunzhong. "China's Garden Architecture and the Tides of English Taste in the
18th Century," Cowrie: A Journal of Chinese Comparative Literature Studies, 1, 2 (1984), 21-34.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "The Refining of Gardens: A Study of Yuanye." Thesis for Chinese IV. Department of Oriental Studies, University of Sydney, 1984.
- Rieder, Joël. "Southern Chinese Classical Gardens," Datutop 5 (1984), 59-83.
- Bickford, Maggie (ed.). Bones of Jade, Soul of Ice. The Flowering Plum in Chinese Art. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1985.
- Hay, John. Kernels of Energy, Bones of Earth. The Rock in Chinese Art. New York: China Institute in America, 1985.
- Chen, Lifang, and Yu Sianglin. The Garden Art of China. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1986. Translation of Zhongguo caoyuan yishu. Review: by Jusuck Koh in Landscape Journal 8, 1 (Spring 1989), 70-75.
- Institute of History of Natural Sciences, CAS (comp.). History and Development of Ancient Chinese Architecture. Beijing: Science Press, 1986.
- Ip, Benjamin Wai-bun. "The Expression of Nature in Traditional Suzhou Gardens," Journal of Garden History 6, 2 (April-June 1986), 125-140.
- Keswick, Maggie. The Chinese Garden: History, Art and Architecture 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.
- Needham, Joseph (ed.). Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. VI.1, Botany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
- Nelson, Susan E. "On Through to the Beyond: The Peach Blossom Spring as Paradise," Archives of Asian Ar t 39 (1986), 23-47.
- Scott, Mary. "The Image of the Garden in Jin Ping Mei and Hongloumeng," Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR) 8, 1/2 (July 1986), 83-94. Download this article in pdf, if your institution subscribes to JSTOR.
- Clement, Sophie, Pierre Clement, and Shin Yong-hak. Architecture du paysage en Extrême-Orient. Paris: Ecole nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 1987.
- Hay, John. "Structure and Aesthetic Criteria in Chinese Rocks and Art,' Res 13 (Spring 1987), 6-22.
- Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Qiu Ying's Depiction of Sima Guang's Duluo Yuan and the View from the Chinese Garden," Oriental Art 33 (1987), 375-380.
- Pirazzoli-t'Serstevens, Michele. Le Yuanmingyuan. Jeux d'eau et palais europeens du XVIIIe siècle à la cour de Chine. Paris: Editions recherche sur les civilisations, 1987.
- Rambach, Pierre, and Susanne Rambach. Gardens of Longevity in China and Japan: The Art of the Stone Raisers. New York: Rizzoli International, 1987.
- Stein, Rolf A. Le monde en petit: jardins en miniature et habitations dans la pensée religieuse d'Extrême-Orient. Paris: Flammarion, 1987.
- Craig, Robert M. "Passages to a Different Universe: The Three Gardens of Zhuo Zheng Yuan, Suzhou," Southeastern College Art Conference Review
11.3 (March 1988), 222-229.
- Durand, Antoine. "Restitution des palais européens du Yuanming yuan," Arts Asiatiques 43 (1988), 123-133.
- Ji Cheng. The Craft of Gardens [Yuan ye], trans. Alison Hardie, with a foreward by Maggie Keswick. New Haven and London. Reviews: by Joseph McDermott in Garden History 18, 1 (1990), 70-74; by Jan Stuart in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 49, 2 (June 1990).
- Munakata, Kiyohiko. "Mysterious Heavens and Chinese Classical Gardens." Res 15 (1988), 61-88.
- Pirazzoli-t'Serstevens, Michèle. "The Emperor Qianlong's European Palaces," Orientations (November 1988), 61-71.
- Tsu, Frances Ya-sing. Landscape Design in Chinese Gardens. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
- Chao, Chung-Sheng. "Aspects of Traditional Chinese Houses and Gardens," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, Dept. of Architecture, 1989).
- Dardess, John. "A Ming Landscape: Settlement, Land Use, Labor, and Estheticism in Tai-ho County, Kiangsi," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49, 2 (Dec., 1989), 295-364. Download this article in pdf, if your library subscribes to JSTOR.
- Fazzioli, Edoardo and Eileen. Les jardins secrets de l'empereur. D'après le Ben cao impérial. Paris: La Maison Rustique, 1990.
- Hargett, James. "The Pleasure Parks of Kaifeng and Lin'an during the Song (960-1279)," Chinese Culture 30, 1 (March 1989), 61-78.
- Hargett, James. "Huizong's Magic Marchmount: The Genyue Pleasure Park of Kaifeng," Monumenta Serica 38 (1988-89), 1-48.
- Pirazzoli-t'Serstevens, Michèle. "A Pluridisciplinary Research on Castiglione and the Emperor Ch'ien-lung's European Palaces," National Palace Museum Bulletin 24, 4 and 5 (September 1989), 1-12 (December 1989), 1-16.
- Currie, Christopher K. "Fishponds as Garden Features, c.1550-1750", Garden History 18 (1990), 22-46.
- He, Shan-An, et al. eds. Present Conservation Status of Rare and Endangered Species in Chinese Botanical Gardens: Supplement to International Symposium on Botantical Gardens, 25-28 September 1988 held at Nanjing, China. Nanjing: Jiangsu Science & Tec, 1990.
- Stuart, Jan. "Ming dynasty gardens reconstructed in words and images," Journal of Garden History 10, 3 (1990), 162-172.
- Stuart, Jan. "A Scholar's Garden in Ming China: Dream and Reality," Asian Art 3, 4 (Fall 1990), 31-52.
- Stein, Rolf A. The World in Miniature: Container Gardens and Dwellings in Far Eastern Religious Thought. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990. Translation by Phyliss Brooks of Stein's 1987 book. Reviews: by Craig Clunas in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 35 (1993), 370-372.
- Sung, Hou-mei Ishida. "Wang Fu and His Depiction of the Bamboo Garden, Shu shen chu," Oriental Art 36, 3 (Autumn 1990), 138-146.
- Yoshikawa, Isao. Chinese Gardens. Tokyo: Graphic-sha Publishing Company, 1990.
- Clunas, Craig. "Ideal and Reality in the Ming Garden," in Erik de Jong and Leslie Tjon Sie Fat, eds., The Authentic Garden. Amsterdam: Clusius Foundation, 1991, 197-205.
- Hardie, Alison. "Ji Cheng's Yuan Ye (The Craft of Gardens) in its Social Setting," in Erik de Jong and Leslie Tjon Sie Fat, eds., The Authentic Garden. Amsterdam: Clusius Foundation, 1991, 207-214.
- Hu, Dongzhu. The Way of Virtuous: The Influence of Art and Philosophy on Chinese Garden Design. Beijing: New World Press.
- Johnston, R. Stewart. Scholar Gardens of China: A Study and Analysis of the Spatial Design of the Chinese Private Garden. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reviews: by J. C.Y. Watt in Journal of Asian Studies 52, 2 (May 1993), 441-442 (download in pdf via JSTOR).
- Métailié, Georges. "Insight into Chinese Traditional Botanical Knowledge," in Erik de Jong and Leslie Tjon Sie Fat, eds., The Authentic Garden. Amsterdam: Clusius Foundation, 1991, 215-223.
- Munakata Kiyohiko. Sacred Mountains in Chinese Art. Campaign: Illinois University Press, 1991.
- Spring, Madeline K. "The Celebrated Cranes of Po Chü-i," Journal of the American Oriental Society 111, 1 (January-March 1991), 8-18. (Download in pdf via JSTOR).
- Titley, Norah, and Frances Wood. Oriental Gardens. London: British Library, 1991.
- Zhong Ming. "An Approach to the Recording and Preservation of Chinese Gardens," in Erik de Jong and Leslie Tjon Sie Fat, eds., The Authentic Garden. Amsterdam: Clusius Foundation, 1991, 225-230.
- Bald, R.C. "Sir William Chambers and the Chinese Garden," in Julia Ching and Willard G. Oxtoby eds. Discovering China: European interpretations in the Enlightenment. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1992, 142-175.
- Chen Lixian. Art and Architecture in Suzhou Gardens. Nanjing: Yilin Press, 1992.
- Han Pao-te. The Story of Chinese Landscape Design: External Forms and Internal Visions. Translation by Carl Shen. Taipei: Youth Cultural Enterprise, 1992.
- Handlin-Smith, Joanna. "Gardens in Ch'i Pao-chia's Social World: Wealth and Values in Late-Ming Kiangnan," Journal of Asian Studies 51, 1 (February 1992), 55-81. Download this article in pdf if your institution subscribes to JSTOR.
- Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Ch'iu Ying's Two Garden Paintings Belonging to the Chion-in, Kyoto," in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Chinese Art History: Painting and Calligraphy. Taipei: National Palace Museum, 1992, 1:331-358.
- Liu Dunzhen. Chinese Classical Gardens of Suzhou. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Translation by Chen Lixian of Liu's 1979 Suzhou gudian yuanlin.
- Durand, A., and Regine Thiriez. "Engraving the Emperor of China's European Palaces," Biblion: The Bulletin of the New York Public Library, 1, 2 (Spring 1993), 81-107.
- Gournay, Antoine. "L'aménagement de l'espace dans le jardin chinois," Asies II: Aménager l'espace. Flora Blanchon (ed.). Paris: Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1993.
- Harrist, Robert E. "Site Names and their Meaning in the Garden of Solitary Enjoyment," Journal of Garden History 13 (1993), 199-212.
- Droguet, Vincent. "Les palais européens de l'empereur Qianlong et leurs sources italiennes", Histoire de l'art, 25-26 (1994), 15-28.
- Genest, Gilles. "Les Palais européens du Yuanmingyuan: essai sur la végétation dans les jardins," Arts Asiatiques 49 (1994), 82-94.
- Strassberg, Richard E. Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writings from Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
- Berque, Augustin. Les raisons du paysage: de la Chine antique aux environnements de synthèse. Paris: Hazan, 1995).
- Clunas, Craig. "The Gift and the Garden," Orientations 26, 2 (1995), 38-45.
- Fung, Stanislaus, and Mark Jackson. "Four Key Terms in the History of Chinese Gardens," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Chinese Architectural History. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong (August, 1995).
- Métailié, Georges. "Lettrés jardiniers en Chine Ancienne," Journal d'agriculture traditionelle et de botanique appliquée 37, 1 (1995), 31-44.
- Murck, Alfreda. "Paintings of Stem Lettuce, Cabbage, and Weeds: Allusions to Tu Fu's Garden," Archives of Asian Art 48 (1995), 32-47.
- Zhang, Dai. Souvenirs rêvés de Tao'an. Translated and annotated by Brigitte Teboul-Wang. Paris: Gallimard, 1995.
- Barmé, Geremie. "The Garden of Perfect Brightness: A Life in Ruins," East Asian History 11 (1996), 111–158.
- Bickford, Maggie. Ink Plum: The Making of a Chinese Scholar-Painting Genre. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
- Clunas, Craig. Fruitful Sites. Garden Culture in Ming China. Durham: Duke University Press. Reviews: by Mark Jackson in Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes, Chinese Gardens II 19, 3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1999), 302-313.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "Garden, VI, 1: China," The Dictionary of Art, vol. 12, ed. Jane Turner. New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1996, 85-101.
- Harrist, Robert E. "Art and Identity in the Northern Sung Dynasty: Evidence from Gardens," in Arts of the Sung and Yüan, edited by Maxwell K. Hearn and Judith G. Smith. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996.
- Li, June, and James Cahill. Paintings of Zhi Garden by Zhang Hong: Revisiting a Seventeenth- Century Chinese Garden. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
- Pajin, Dusan. "Symbolism of Chinese Gardens," Journal of Oriental Studies 34, 1 (1996), 17-33.
- Paolillo, Maurizio. Il giardino cinese. Una tradizione millenaria. Milano: Guerini & Associati, 1996.
- Ji Cheng. Yuanye, le traité du jardin (1634). Translated by Che Bing Chiu. Besançon: Les éditions de l'imprimeur, 1997.
- Clunas, Craig. "Nature and Ideology in Western Descriptions of the Chinese Garden," in Nature and Ideology: Natural Garden Design in the Twentieth Century, Joachim Wolschke-Buhlmahn ed., Dumbarton Oaks: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1997, 21-33. Reprinted in Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident 22 (2000), 153-166.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "Body and Appropriateness in Yuan ye," Intersight 4 (1997), 84-91.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "The Imaginary Garden of Liu Shilong," Terra Nova 2 (Fall 1997), 15-21.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "Word and Garden in Chinese Essays on Gardens of the Ming Dynasty: Notes on Matters of Approach," in Interfaces: Image, Texte, Langage (Dijon, France), 11-12 (June 1997), 77-90.
- Métailié, Georges, and Nicole Stäuble Tercier. Au jardin potager chinois. Vevey: Alimentarium, 1997.
- Mowry, Robert, ed. Worlds Within Worlds: The Rosenblum Collection of Chinese Scholar's Rocks. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums.
- Wong, Kenneth King Chi. "The Influence of Merchant Patronage on Yangzhou Gardens in the Qing Dynasty," in On What Grounds: Refereed Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand, Sean Pickersgill and Peter Scriver (eds.). Adelaide: Society of Architectural Historians, 1997.
- Brandel, Judith, and Tina Turbeville. Tiger Balm Gardens: A Chinese Billionaire's Fantasy Environments. Hong Kong: Aw Boon Haw Foundation, 1998.
- Brown, Claudia. "Where Immortals Dwell: Shared Symbolism in Painting and Scholar's Rocks," Oriental Art 44, 1 (1998), 11-17.
- Cheng Liyao. Ancient Chinese Architecture: Imperial Gardens. New York: Springer Verlag, 1998.
- Feng Jin. "Jing. the Concept of Scenery in Texts on the Traditional Chinese Garden: An Initial Exploration," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 4 (Winter 1998), 339-365.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "Notes on the Make-do Garden," Utopian Studies 9, 1 (1998), 142-148.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "The interdisciplinary prospects of reading Yuan ye," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 211-231.
- Fung, Stanislaus. "Guide to secondary sources on Chinese gardens," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 269-286.
- Hall, David L., and Roger T. Ames. "The cosmological setting of Chinese gardens," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 175-186.
- Harrist, Robert E. Painting and Private Life in Eleventh-Century China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Lutz, Albert, and Alexandra von Przychowski (eds.). Wege ins Paradies oder die Liebe zum Stein in China. Zurich: Museum Rietberg Zurich, 1998.
- Makeham, John. "The Confucian role of names in traditional Chinese gardens," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 187-210.
- Métailié, Georges. "Some hints on 'Scholar Gardens' and plants in traditional China," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 248-256.
- Minford, John. "The Chinese garden: death of a symbol," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 257-268.
- Mowry, Robert D. Chinesische Gelehrtensteine aus der Sammlung Richard Rosenblum. Zurich: Museum Rietberg Zurich, 1998.
- Powers, Martin J. "Garden Rocks, Fractals, and Freedom: Tao Yuanming Comes Home," Oriental Art 44, 1 (Spring 1998), 28-38.
- Sensabaugh, David. "Fragments of Mountain and Chunks of Stone: The Rock in the Chinese Garden," Oriental Art 44, 1 (Spring 1998), 18-27.
- Shi Mingzheng. "From Imperial Gardens to Public Parks: The Transformation of Urban Space in Early Twentieth-Century Beijing," Modern China 24, 3 (July 1998), 219-254. Download this article in pdf if your institution subscribes to JSTOR.
- Thiriez, Régine. Barbarian Lens: Western Photographers of the Qianlong Emperor's European Palaces. Amsterdam: Gordon & Breach.
- Wang, Liangying, et al. Chinese Tree Peony. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 1998.
- Wang, Joseph Cho. The Chinese Garden. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
- Wang Yi. "Interior display and its relation to external spaces in traditional Chinese gardens," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 18, 3 (Autumn 1998), 232-247.
- Campbell, Duncan. "Qi Biaojia's 'Footnotes to Allegory Mountain': Introduction and Translation," Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes, Chinese Gardens II, 19, 3/4 (1999), 239-242.
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2002-2016. Last update August 2016
© François Louis, Bard Graduate Center, New York. Suggestions and comments are welcome.